I feel quite certain female circumcision is not ‘mandatory’ anywhere, that is, the child is routinely cut in the hospital directly and enforced by law. But many Middle East and African cultures accept female circumcision as a matter of course, although programs, such as supported by the UN, are making inroads. Female circumcision is almost certainly illegally practiced in the United States like it is in Europe by immigrants who have brought their culture with them. I have heard of no reasonable civilized argument that can promote this mutilation of female genitalia. But I can’t understand male circumcision, either.