I just wanted to add a little bit of nuance to Floyd’s post. Everything he says about the English attitude regarding Africans is true. However, the exact same descriptions were given to the Irish by the English during 800 years of the English occupation of Ireland. The English felt they were a separate and superior race, and that even other ‘whites’ were inherently inferior. Cromwell would describe Irish and Scots as demons with forked tongues and cloven feet, disguised as human. This attitude persisted for quite a few years in the United States, until earlier this century. It is interesting to note that the Irish in Northern Ireland had their own civil rights struggle with the English during the 1960s and 1970s. My point is, the English did not assume all whites were superior to blacks. They actually felt they were superior to everyone, and that disturbing frame of mind carried over with the colonists.